Canada’s Popularity Growing as Study Abroad Destination for International Students

A new survey of international students has revealed Canada is fast catching the U.S. and U.K. among the world’s most popular destinations for young people looking to study abroad.

The 2018 edition of the QS Applicant Survey shows Canada could be about to overtake the U.K. and become the second most popular study destination behind the U.S.

Experts see the change as a reaction to political shifts in both countries. While the U.S. is pursuing anti-immigrant policies under Donald Trump, the U.K. has voted to leave the European Union, with a central issue being freedom of movement.

Meanwhile, Canada is focused on increasing immigration, with encouraging international graduates to stay and build their careers here a central policy of the federal Liberal government.

International Students: Preferred Study Destinations

1 U.S. 42% 6 France 14%
2 U.K. 34% 7 Switzerland 11%
3 Canada 33% 8 Netherlands 10%
4 Australia 26% 9 Spain 9%
5 Germany 24% 10 New Zealand 9%

Source: QS Applicant Survey 2018

The QS Application Survey says that although Canada remains third overall, it beats both the U.S. and the U.K. in attracting students from specific regions.

“Canada remains the third most-popular study destination, and in many cases, outperforms the UK and the US when target destinations are broken down by country, especially in the Middle East region,” the report says.

U.S. Government data shows a sharp drop of 17 per cent in the number of study permits issued to students from overseas in the year to September 30, 2017.

At the same time, Canadian universities have seen nearly an 11 per cent increase in their international student numbers, suggesting Canada is attracting at least some of those put off the U.S. by the Trump administration.

A three-step process has been established in Canada targeting international students. First, they hold Study Permits while in full time education, second, they become eligible for a Post Graduation Work Permit, and third, they can use all the experience gathered to qualify for permanent residence.

It has made Canada one of the more attractive countries in the world for foreign students considering their study options. Figures from Universities Canada show a 10.7 per cent increase in the number of international students, country-wide.

Canadian University International Student Cohort, 2017 Increase

Province 2017 Increase (%)
Alberta 8.8
British Columbia 15.6
Manitoba 5.6
Newfoundland & Labrador 10.5
New Brunswick -5.7
Nova Scotia 4.2
Ontario 12.7
Prince Edward Island 12.8
Quebec 9.1
Saskatchewan 2

Figures: Universities Canada

Ottawa recently announced that it will accept nearly a million new permanent residents over the next three years, and a significant chunk of those are expected to be international students who are graduates from Canadian universities.

The federal government sees them as blue chip new permanent residents: young people with a Canadian education, knowledge of the official languages, often with Canadian work experience and knowledge of how life works here. This puts them already on the pathway to integration, a crucial buzz word at IRCC.

Since coming to power in fall 2015, the Liberal government has attempted to make it easier for international students to gain permanent residence.

Interested candidates: Kindly contact us here to receive information.

Quebec Immigration to Announce Significant Changes to Popular Programs

The Quebec immigration department is set to announce significant changes to a number of its programs, including the Quebec Skilled Worker (QSW), the Quebec Immigrant Investor Program (QIIP) and the Quebec Experience Program (PEQ).

An announcement on March 28 will detail a swathe of changes due to come into effect on August 1.

The QSW changes centre around the job offer and stay in Quebec sections of the points grid. There are currently up to 10 points available for a job offer and up to 5 for a stay in Quebec. The previously-announced cap of 5,000 applications will not be honoured.

Under the QIIP, the investment threshold is set to rise from $800,000 to $1.2 million. Candidates will also need a legally-acquired net worth of $2 million instead of the current $1.6 million. The revised program is set come into effect in August 2018.

QIIP Existing Requirements

  • Legally acquired personal net worth of $1.6 million;
  • Two years of suitable management or business experience within the five years preceding the application;
  • Investment of $800,000 into a passive government guaranteed investment for a period of five years bearing no interest;
  • Intend to settle in the province of Quebec.

The PEQ changes will see applicants on a spousal open work permit to become eligible. The program is also set to be expanded to include employment at National Occupational Classifications C and D.

There are also plans to launch new programs aimed at entrepreneurs and self-employed persons.

Interested candidates: Kindly contact us here to receive information.

Quebec Bills Federal Government $146m For Illegal Border Crossers

Quebec has sent Canada’s federal government a bill of $146 million for the resources it has so-far used to accommodate thousands of illegal border crossers from the U.S.

The provincial government says Ottawa should pay for housing and feeding the border crossers. The bill also incorporates costs that mount up as the asylum seekers wait for their cases to be heard, with Immigration and Refugee Board backlogs running into several years.

Quebec says issues with asylum seekers and the Canadian border are dealt with at federal level.

In 2017, nearly 25,000 were submitted in Canada, compared with just 3,500 in the previous fives years. More than half of the 2017 number crossed into Quebec.

The mainly-Haitian asylum seekers came to Canada over fears they would lose their Temporary Protected Status in the U.S.

The federal budget includes a further $173 million to be spent on the situation, with some saying the situation seen in summer 2017 could be repeated in 2018.

Canadian officials are hoping an information campaign will stem the flow of asylum seekers from the U.S., as Donald Trump’s administration cracks down on the special status afforded many different nationality groups.

Figures show Canada’s RCMP intercepted nearly 21,000 asylum seekers crossing between legal border points in 2017.

The numbers peaked overwhelmingly in July and August, which saw 3,134 and 5,712 interceptions respectively.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security says it will end Temporary Protected Status for Nicaraguans in January 2019, who the same special status for Hondurans could end in July 2018 following a recent extension.

These two groups alone would see nearly 60,000 people lose their status in the U.S.

Some experts are convinced Canada will at least see another uptick in border crossings, possibly at the levels seen in Quebec in 2017.

Numbers spiked to 300 a day during July and August, from the normal 20 to 30, forcing a makeshift border camp to be set up to process claimants.

Temporary Shelter

Locations including Montreal’s Olympic Stadium were used as temporary shelter for the illegal border crossers.

Some 40,000 extra asylum cases were expected to be registered with Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Board in 2017, which has the capacity to hear 24,000 cases per year and already has a backlog of 40,000.

Immigration Minister Ahmed Hussen and Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale were grilled on the situation by the federal government Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration in October 2017.

Hussen insisted the situation did not reach crisis point, while Goodale was adamant security was not compromised because of the increased case load.

Information Campaign

The government information campaign combined with the start of the school year, is believed to be behind the dramatic reduction in numbers. Parents, no matter what their background, are always reluctant to move their children during the school year.  It will also support the argument that the majority of current asylum seekers are in fact economic queue jumpers, seeking a faster entry into Canada.

A federal-provincial taskforce was formed in response to the situation, including Hussen, Goodale and Quebec Immigration Minister Kathleen Weil.

Safe Third Country Agreement

There have been several calls for Canada to suspend the Safe Third Country Agreement with the U.S., which says an asylum seeker must make their claim in the first country to which they arrive. The agreement is the reason why those coming from the U.S. are electing to cross the border at remote locations, with the aim of getting arrested and entering the Canadian immigration system.  Such individuals would otherwise not qualify to submit a claim as the Safe Third Country Agreement would prevent them from doing so.

Interested candidates: Kindly contact us here to receive information.

Harper’s Tougher Canadian Citizenship Requirements Saw Naturalization Rate Drop

Tightening of Canadian citizenshi prequirements under the previous Conservative government saw a smaller percentage of immigrants become citizens, new figures show.

Canadian census data reveals the rate of naturalization fell from 85.6 per cent to 82.7 per cent between 2011 and 2016, as people found it harder to become Canadian citizens.

Under previous Prime Minister Stephen Harper, major changes made included:

  • Increasing the time permanent residents needed to be physically present in Canada to qualify for citizenship;
  • Widening the age range for language and knowledge tests;
  • Raising the citizenship application fee.

The current Liberal government revoked the changes over the past six months following the passing of Bill C-6, but not before they had seriously impacted the number of people becoming Canadian citizens.

Analysis by Andrew Griffith of the Policy Options public forum reveals a stark contrast between the traditional rate of naturalization and the rate between 2011 and 2016.

His article, titled ‘What the census tells us about citizenship’, states that 90 per cent of immigrants arriving in Canada pre-1981 were citizens in 2016. In the 2011 census, 77.2 per cent of immigrants in the country for between five and 10 years had become citizens. But that rate fell to 68.5 per cent according to 2016 census data.

“The path that leads newcomers to ultimately attain Canadian citizenship is eroding, a trend that the government has yet to acknowledge and address,” Griffith wrote.

He added: “The reversal of some Harper-era policy and operational changes will partially slow this trend, but the government needs to take further steps. The acquisition of citizenship brings benefits to both individuals and to Canadian society.”

The further steps Griffith wants to see taken centre around the citizenship fee, which was raised from $100 to $530 under Harper, and has so far not been changed by Justin Trudeau’s Liberals.

Griffith believes the citizenship fee hike is the single biggest barrier for immigrants considering becoming citizens.

Almost all of the other Harper changes have now been revoked. The latest changes to the Citizenship Act came into effect in February.

Under the changes, all citizenship revocation decisions become the responsibility of the Federal Court, unless an individual chooses to have the decision made by the immigration minister.

A new step has also been added to revocation process, whereby Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada will review cases before they are referred to the Federal Court and decide whether to continue with proceedings.

How Dual Intent Affects Canada Immigration Applications

Canada immigration candidates who have pending permanent residence applications can still apply for temporary residence and a Canada work permit under dual intent regulations.

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) allows one to legitimately have two intents.  One can have separate, individual applications for temporary and permanent residence.

The Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) website states that ‘the issue of dual intent affects all categories of immigration applications’.

Central to the issue of dual intent is whether the candidate is making a bona fide application for temporary residence. The outcome of any permanent residence application must be independent of the candidate’s intention to leave the country when their temporary residence visa expires.

Section A22(2) of the IRPA states: “An intention by a foreign national to become a permanent resident does not preclude them from becoming a temporary resident if the officer is satisfied that they will leave Canada by the end of the period authorized for their stay.”

This presents a challenge for visa officers, who must assess the likelihood of a temporary residence applicant leaving Canada when their visa expires. The guidelines state that having a permanent residence application pending is not by itself a reason for refusing a temporary residence application. A candidate can legitimately want to acquire permanent residence status while at the same time meeting the requirements for a temporary residence visa.

Certain permanent residence programs encourage candidates to come to Canada as a temporary resident while their permanent residence application is being processed. This includes situations where an employer’s need for a foreign worker is urgent: the worker can be granted entry and given a work permit provided it is established they will should the permanent residence application fail.

One such immigration program is the Atlantic Immigration Pilot, which allows for foreign workers to enter Canada on a work permit once the permanent residence application is in the advanced stages.

Guidelines for immigration officers published on the IRCC website state that: “if an officer has concerns/doubts about the applicant’s bona fide, the applicant must be made aware of these concerns and given an opportunity to respond to them.”

IRCC’s guidelines also give reasons why a temporary residence application might be refused:

  • History of having contravened the conditions of admission on a previous stay in Canada;
  • Lack of or insufficient proof of adequate funds to support oneself while in Canada, and to affect one’s departure from Canada;
  • Medical inadmissibility;
  • Not satisfying the visa officer that the individual will leave Canada at the end of their period of authorized stay.

The guidelines further state: “Refusals do not stem from having two intents. They stem from having a single bona fide intent (i.e., to become a permanent resident) and misrepresenting the second intent (i.e., to become a temporary resident) in order to achieve the first intent.”

The example given by the IRCC is an applicant for a work or study permit who states they have no intention of leaving Canada. In this example, the temporary residence application is being used as a means to achieve permanent residence. Here, there is only a single intent and the guidelines state that the application for temporary residence should be denied.

“This is because the applicant has shown that they do not respect the terms and conditions of temporary residence, should they not qualify for a permanent resident stream,” the guidelines say.

At the same time, the fact that a study permit applicant might qualify for and apply for permanent residence at the end of their studies is not a reason for refusal, provided they demonstrate they will leave Canada if their study permit expires.

The guidelines also state that individual cases are open to interpretation, stating “Officers are reminded to use their own judgment and the flexibility afforded to them by A22(2) when making decisions in cases with a dual intent aspect.”

Applicants who intend to study or work in Canada prior to or after applying for permanent residence must be aware of Canada’s dual intent policies and how to address this issue.

Students and Businesses to Benefit from Changes to Express Entry

Citizenship and Immigration Minister John McCallum has announced changes to the Express Entry application for permanent residency. These change, which go into effect on November 19th 2016, will generally affect two swaths of people: skilled workers who are applying with a job offer and international students who obtained their degrees at a Canadian institution.

Express Entry applicants are evaluated through points under the Comprehensive Ranking System, which were rewarded for: English and/ or French proficiency, educational level and, in the case of skilled workers applying, either work experience or a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). Under the new system the requirements stay the same, but they are now stressed to varying degrees- as the allocation of points has changed.

Under the previous system the only way an applicant could gain CRS points for a job offer in Canada was if they had an LMIA.

  • Previously candidates in the Express Entry pool were given an additional 600 CRS points for obtaining an LMIA but now they will only receive 200 points if their job is in Major Group 00 Senior Management Occupations of the National Occupational Classification System (NOC), or 50 points if the job is in any other skilled occupation.

Now certain applicant, who have a job offer in Canada, are eligible for CRS points without an LMIA

  • If their job offer if they are holders of a valid work permit and have been employed in Canada under an international agreement such as NAFTA for at least one year full-time;
  • They have a closed work permit and have been working in Canada for at least one year full-time.

The maximum number of points an applicant in the Express Entry pool can receive for their education is 150, but now if they graduate from an eligible program of study in Canada they may obtain up to 30 points in addition to the points allocated for the level of their education. This gives international students who have studied in Canada a big step up in obtaining permanent residency. Points may be awarded to the applicant for Canadian education as follows

  • 15 points to candidates who have an eligible credential from a one or two-year post secondary program
  • 30 points to candidates who have an eligible credential from
    • A post secondary program of three or more years;
    • A university level program at the master’s level or at the level of an entry-to-practice professional degree for an occupation listed in the National Occupational Classification matrix at Skill Level A or which licensing by a provincial regulatory body is required; or
    • A university-level program at the doctoral level

Beyond the allocation of points the new system has extended the submission period; previously once candidates received their invitation to apply they had 60 days to submit a complete application with all required supporting documents but not they are given 90 days.

This is welcome change to the Express Entry pool as what is generally a very stringent application is now more accessible to more people. These changes to the allocation of points for job offers levels the playing field for both people without LMIA’s and people without job offers. These additional points to international students who studied in Canada now makes it easier for them to stay upon graduation.


2,427 Candidates Invited to Apply for Express Entry

November 16 draw may be the final draw before improvements to Express Entry come into effect on November 19

The number of candidates being invited to apply for immigration to Canada through Express Entry has shot up yet again, with 2,427 Invitations to Apply (ITAs) having been issued to candidates with 470 or more Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) points in a draw that took place on November 16, 2016.

This draw, the 47th in total since Express Entry was first launched, is likely to be the last draw to be made before significant changes are made to the way in which candidates are awarded points under the CRS. These changes, outlined below, will come into effect on Saturday, November 19.

Readers should note that the November 16 draw selected candidates under the existing points system, and not the points system that will be used as of November 19.

Draws are larger than ever

Over the past couple of months, the number of ITAs issued in Express Entry draws has increased substantially. As recently as the August 24 draw, only 750 candidates were issued an ITA and the CRS cut-off point was 538. Since that time, the number of ITAs issued has gone up six times in a row, and the CRS cut-off point has dropped to its current level of 470. The most recent Express Entry draws represent the largest upturn in the number of ITAs issued since the system was first introduced in January, 2015.


Big changes coming on November 19

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) describes the changes to be brought in this week as improvements to the Express Entry system.

The way in which points are awarded for a qualifying job offer will be changed. Importantly, job offers will no longer be worth 600 CRS points. Instead, a job offer may be worth 200 points (if the offer is in an occupation contained in a Major Group 00 of the National Occupational Classification) or 50 points (for all other job offers in a skilled occupation).

In addition, some non-LMIA-based job offers will also be awarded points for the first time. The new regulations will also allow the following individuals to be awarded points for a qualifying job offer:

  • Candidates with a work permit issued under an international agreement, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
  • Candidates with a work permit issued under the ‘significant benefits to Canada’ criteria, such as Intra-Company Transfers.

A positive move from IRCC

“Many candidates in the pool were hopeful that there would be another draw before the changes to Express Entry are implemented. This was particularly the case for those candidates who had received qualifying job offers and updated their profiles accordingly. It is only fair that IRCC allowed these candidates to receive an ITA based on the current regulations,” says Attorney David Cohen.

“As for candidates who remain in the pool, as well as individuals thinking of creating a profile in the near future — the future looks bright. Not only does the government of Canada plan on welcoming more newcomers through Express Entry in 2017, but the system due to come into force on November 19 may be more equitable and promote the human capital factors of candidates, relative to the strength of a job offer under the CRS.”


Bill to Change Canadian Citizenship Act Passes House of Commons, With Senate Approval Pending

On June 17, 2016, legislation to change the Canadian Citizenship Act, also known as Bill C-6, passed the Canadian House of Commons following its third reading. The very same day, a first reading took place in the Senate. The government of Canada had hoped to have the new legislation passed into law in time for Canada Day, which took place on July 1. However, it is now more likely that this will take place after the Senate re-adjourns following a summer break.

The government proposes sweeping changes to the Citizenship Act that would allow immigrants to apply for Canadian citizenship earlier and more easily than is currently the case. Changing the existing Citizenship Act is considered an important aspect of the government’s legislative agenda.

In June, 2014, the previous Conservative government of Canada brought into law the Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act (also known as bill C-24). Among other measures, this controversial legislation made eligibility requirements for immigrants seeking citizenship more onerous than had previously been the case. It also allowed the government to revoke citizenship from dual Canadian citizens convicted of terrorism, treason or espionage.

Among the proposed amendments in Bill C-6 is a reduction in the amount of time permanent residents have to live in Canada in order to become eligible to apply for citizenship, from four out of six years to three out five years. In addition, applicants who spent time in Canada on temporary status-such as on a work or study permit-would be able to count a portion of this time towards the three-year requirement.

The proposed amendments would also repeal the intent to reside provision and remove language proficiency requirements for certain applicants. In addition, the new legislation would repeal the contentious provision that allows for the revocation of citizenship.

Proposed changes to the Citizenship Act

The proposed changes to the Citizenship Act are outlined below.

Repeal of revocation provision

Current act: Authority to revoke citizenship for certain acts against the national interest of Canada. These grounds include convictions of terrorism, high treason, treason or spying offences, depending on the sentence received, or for membership in an armed force or organized armed group engaged in armed conflict with Canada.

Proposed amendment: Repeal national interest grounds for revocation.

Repeal of intention to reside provision

Current act: Applicants must have the intention to reside in Canada if granted citizenship.

Proposed amendment: Repeal intent to reside provision.

Physical presence in Canada

Current act: Physical presence for 4 out of 6 years before the date of application.

Proposed amendment: Physical presence for 3 out of 5 years before the date of application.

Counting temporary status

Current act: Time spent in Canada as a non-permanent resident may not be counted.

Proposed amendment: Applicants may count each day they were physically present in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person before becoming a permanent resident as a half-day toward meeting the physical presence requirement for citizenship, up to a maximum of one year of credited time.

Less burdensome annual physical presence requirement

Current act: Minimum of 183 days physical presence in 4 of the last 6 years.

Proposed amendment: Repeal the minimum 183 days physical presence in 4 of the last 6 years.

Fewer people need to prove language proficiency

Current act: Applicants aged 14-64 must meet language requirements and pass knowledge test.

Proposed amendment: Applicants aged 18-54 must meet language requirements and pass knowledge test.

Canadian income taxes

Current act: File Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for four taxation years out of six years, matching physical presence requirement.

Proposed amendment: File Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for three taxation years out of five years, matching proposed new physical presence requirement.

Conditional sentence now a bar

Current act: Time spent serving a conditional sentence order can be counted towards meeting physical presence requirements. Convicted individuals who are serving conditional sentence orders (sentences served in the community with certain conditions) are not prohibited from being granted citizenship or taking the oath of citizenship.

Proposed amendment: Time spent under a conditional sentence order cannot be counted towards meeting the physical presence requirements; and those serving a conditional sentence order are prohibited from being granted citizenship or taking the oath of citizenship.

Canadian citizenship oath

Current act: Provision prohibiting applicants from taking the oath of citizenship if they never met or no longer meet the requirements for the grant of citizenship, but does not apply to applications received before June 11, 2015.

Proposed amendment: Provision prohibiting applicants from taking the oath of citizenship if they never met or no longer meet the requirements for the grant of citizenship also applies to applications still in process that were received prior to June 11, 2015.

New provision to counter fraud

Current act: No explicit authority for citizenship officers to seize fraudulent documents related to the processing of applications.

Proposed amendment: Authority to seize documents provided during the administration of the Citizenship Act if there are reasonable grounds to believe they are fraudulent, or being used fraudulently.

We’re getting closer

“I know that many people across Canada, as well as their families and friends, have been waiting patiently for the changes to Canadian citizenship legislation to become law. Thankfully, we are now edging closer to that day, and not a day too soon,” says Attorney David Cohen.


Mexican Citizens are now Eligible for Visa-Free Travel to Canada

For the first time since 2009, citizens of Mexico may travel to Canada without having to apply for a visitor visa (Temporary Resident Visa, or TRV) beforehand. The lifting of the visa requirement on December 1, 2016 means that Mexicans traveling to Canada by air will need an electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) before boarding a flight.

Mexicans traveling to Canada over land require neither an eTA nor a TRV; these visitors simply need to present their passport at the Port of Entry (border). Mexican citizens have been able to apply for an eTA since this time last week. Mexicans with a valid TRV do not need to also obtain an eTA in order to enter Canada.

However, after an individual’s TRV expires, he or she will need to apply for an eTA in order to enter Canada again, if travelling by air. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau first made the promise to lift the visa requirement during the 2015 election campaign, before formally announcing the new policy during a two-day state visit by Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto in June, 2016. The two heads of government also announced plans to lift Mexico’s ban on Canadian beef imports. Trudeau has previously stated that �This move will make it easier for our Mexican friends to visit Canada while growing our local economies and strengthening our communities.�

He also mentioned that �Canada is pleased to deliver on the government�s commitment to lift the visa requirement for Mexican nationals. We look forward to the social and economic benefits that lifting the visa requirement will bring to both countries, especially to the middle class here in Canada.� The relationship between Canada and Mexico is long and deep. The countries, along with the United States, implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into force in 1994. According to the 2011 census, the Mexican diaspora in Canada numbers 317,000. Data from Statistics Canada for the first seven months of 2016 that showed a 17 per cent increase in travel from Mexico to Canada year-over-year.

It also noted that this September, Aeromexico, the flag carrier in Mexico, announced that as a direct result of the lifting of the visa requirement as of December 1, the airline would increase flights to Canada by 47 per cent. This could translate into a potential additional 9,900 passengers per week from Mexico to several major Canadian cities. Last month, federal Immigration Minister John McCallum said the visa could be “reimposed” if the number of asylum claims spikes as a result of the policy change, but did not specify what number of claims would trigger a reversal. “Canada retains its sovereignty on this issue. There comes a point where it would become unsustainable, but we are hoping that point will not arrive,” said McCallum.

A senior official in McCallum’s office added that IRCC is working with Mexican counterparts to ensure a successful visa lift. “This includes measures to identify and deter irregular migration. As with all visa lifts that Canada undertakes, IRCC will carefully monitor migration trends, including asylum claim rates, coming out of Mexico once the visa is lifted,” said the official. The eTA

The eTA process, as compared to the process of applying for a TRV, is typically a simpler and cheaper process. Mexico will join other countries around the world that have an agreement with Canada whereby its citizens do not need to apply for a visa before visiting Canada. Visa-exempt individuals who wish to enter Canada by air are now required to obtain an eTA before they board their flight. This system was first introduced in August, 2015, and became mandatory on November 20, 2016 after a lengthy leniency period came to an end. Individuals requiring an eTA in order to visit Canada asked to fill out some personal information and answer a few basic questions relating to criminality or medical issues. To complete the online form, you need:

  • a valid passport from a visa-exempt country,
  • a credit card to pay the $7.00 CAD fee,
  • a valid email address, and
  • access to the internet and a few minutes of your time.

An eTA is an electronic document linked to an individual passport. The application process is completely online, though a paper application may be made in certain cases. Once an individual receives their eTA, it is valid for five years or until the individuals passport expires, whichever occurs first.

The process is usually fast the eTA may be approved within minutes  although it is recommended that travellers apply in advance of their flight in order to avoid delays. Already, certain travellers have been taken unawares and have missed flights because the application process took longer than expected.